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30th September 2021  Product update: rapidvirology staff writer

Evidence that COVID-19 Vaccine Induced T-Cell Response Targets Known SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern

Adaptive Biotechnologies Corporation has announced that immunoSEQ® T-MAP™ COVID was used in the Nature study to measure the T-cell immune response elicited by the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine in the context of multiple variants of SARS-CoV-2, including B 1.351 and B.1.1.7. The study provides further evidence that the T-cell response may contribute to protection from COVID-19.

Adaptive’s technology was used to quantify T-cell expansion across all regions of the virus, demonstrating that the T-cell response is broad and unaltered by mutations that render vaccine-generated antibodies less effective. The study was conducted by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston, MA.

“Our data generated in collaboration with Adaptive Biotechnologies highlight the potent and broad T-cell immune responses induced by the Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccine in humans, including against virus variants,” said Dan Barouch, M.D., Ph.D., Director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at BIDMC. “Using TCRbeta sequencing together with traditional functional T-cell assays, we are able to understand and quantify T-cell expansion to different parts of the spike protein with precision and scale that wouldn’t have been possible even a few years ago.”

In the multinational phase 3 ENSEMBLE trial, participants given Johnson & Johnson’s vaccine experienced similar efficacy against the B.1.351 variant. To understand the mechanism of protection, the COV1001 phase 1/2 trial analyzed blood samples from 20 vaccinated individuals to measure antibody immune response (humoral immune response) and T-cell response (cellular immune response) against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain WA1/2020 as well as against the B.1.1.7, CAL.20C, P.1., and B.1.351 variants.

Post-vaccination, results showed that the levels of neutralizing antibodies were diminished against the variants, but that the T-cell immune response was preserved, suggesting T cells may provide protection against these emerging strains. Results indicate T-cells may be an important correlate of protection and should be considered as an endpoint for vaccine clinical trials.

“These findings support a growing body of evidence that measuring T-cell response is critical to demonstrate immunity and guide development of COVID-19 vaccines, particularly in the growing presence of new variants,” said Harlan Robins, Ph.D., co-founder and chief scientific officer, Adaptive Biotechnologies. “Until recently it has been challenging to incorporate measurement of T-cell response into vaccine clinical trials, but now immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID provides the ability to do this at scale and with precision using blood samples, and this technology can be applied to many different diseases.”

immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID combines the sequencing and mapping capabilities of Adaptive’s immune medicine platform to show how T cells respond to different parts of the virus, including the various parts of the spike protein. Mapping exactly how the variants impact different parts of the virus can indicate if the immune response is likely to be affected.

T cells
T cells are the adaptive immune system’s first responders to detect any virus. They quickly multiply and circulate in the blood to attack the virus, often before symptoms appear. Among many other jobs, T cells also recruit B cells to produce antibodies after about a week or two to potentially provide immunity against future infection. T cells contain a treasure trove of information that could provide one consistent and trackable measure of the immune response to COVID-19 from initial exposure through viral clearance.

T cells can “remember” prior infections and kill pathogens if they reappear. Research shows that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 decline over time. T cells hold important clues to immunity and correlates of protection and need to be studied to assess how long patients remain resistant to reinfection. Given T cells circulate freely in the blood, they are an easy and thus a desirable target for assessing SARS-CoV-2 exposure and potentially immunity.

The immunoSEQ® T-MAP™ COVID offering provides tools for researchers to study the COVID-19 T-cell immune response, including detecting past SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response in research samples and the ability to track responses longitudinally.

immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID can detect past SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immune response with a simple positive/negative result in research samples and track responses longitudinally. Users have access to Adaptive’s SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell receptor database (TCR) database to determine if samples show SARS-CoV-2-specific TCRs and the antigens to which these TCR responded.

The tool can be used to study the T-cell immune response for vaccine research across COVID-19 variants., mapping across >160K SARS-CoV-2-specific antigen-TCR sequence-level data. immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID can dive into sequence, patient or population-level data, as well as determine TCR clones shared between cohorts and those that are public vs private clones. immunoSEQ T-MAP COVID is For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.

Request information using button provided below or visit Adaptivebiotech.com to learn more.



Date Published: 30th September 2021

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Note: This content has been edited by a rapidvirology.com staff writer for style and content.

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